Adult Psychoanalysis


The curriculum consists of four years of courses in psychoanalytic theory, technique, child development, psychopathology, psychoanalytic research, and clinical continuous case seminars. There are also courses given at each level of training to teach candidates to write about psychoanalytic process.

Candidates must have at least one case in analysis, either currently, or one case in analysis previously for long enough to insure some meaningful clinical analytic experience, to be eligible for Second Year classes. Progression to the Third and Fourth Years of classes requires two cases in analysis, either currently or at least two cases in analysis previously for long enough to insure meaningful clinical analytic experience.

Adult Psychoanalysis - First Year Courses

Course 101
Intro to Theory and Practice of Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Therapy

Robert Smith, M.D.
Marianne Goldberger, M.D.
This course focuses on essential elements of the clinical situation that apply to both analysis and psychotherapy, such as how one listens, the concepts of "clinical surface" and depth, psychic reality, creating an atmosphere of safety, the developmental point of view, the effect of theory on technique, signs of early trauma, recognition of "character," and transference-countertransference. The concepts will be illustrated with detailed process notes from a psychotherapy case provided by one of the instructors.
September 6 - November 8, 2017
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
8 classes

Course 102
Freud I: Early Theories of Neurosis, Dreams, and the Topographic Theory

David Pollens, Ph.D.
Sabina Preter, M.D., Ph.D.
This is the first course in a sequence that deals with the historical development of Freud's thought. We will examine the evolution of Freud's initial thinking about etiology and symptom formation as presented in Studies on Hysteria and his early papers on the neuroses. We will then proceed to study the development of the topographical theory through a close reading of The Interpretation of Dreams. The course will focus on Freud's introduction and early conceptualization of basic psychoanalytic concepts up through 1900, including repression, conflict, compromise formation, regression, cathexis, the unpleasure principle, the primary and secondary processes, etc.
September 11, 2017 - January 8, 2018
Mondays, 7:00 - 8:25 PM
15 classes

Course 103
Freud II: Infantile Sexuality and Freud's Case Histories

David Goldenberg, M.D.
Donald Moss, M.D.
In his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905) Freud initiated a revolution felt down to the present day. Working from within the framework of the biological instinct theory of his time, he derived a developmental perspective on human sexuality that could account for the sexual manifestations during childhood, adolescence, and every known adult variation. While ultimately richer and much more complex, he penned his major case histories – Dora (1905), the Rat Man (1909), Little Hans (1909), and the Wolf-Man (1914/18) – to illustrate his insights into sexuality. In this course we will study the Three Essays and the four case histories, observing how they relate to one another, how they reflect the expanding orb of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, and how they provide glimpses of the beginnings of psychoanalytic technique.
January 29 - April 30, 2018
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
13 classes

Course 104
Psychotherapy Continuous Case Seminar

Alan Zients, M.D.
Hilli Dagony-Clark, Psy.D.
January 3 - March 28, 2018
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
12 classes

Course 105A
Technique I: Basics of Psychoanalytic Diagnosis

Peter B. Dunn, M.D.
Richard Brent, M.D.
This course reviews contemporary psychoanalytic diagnosis as it has developed within an ego psychological and object relational perspective. The differences between psychoanalytic and psychiatric diagnosis are detailed both in terms of the differences in basic assumptions about psychopathology and the analytic clinician’s reliance on observations of the therapeutic interaction to supplement a question-and-answer approach.
September 6 - October 25, 2017
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
7 classes

Course 105B
Technique I: Assessment of Analyzability

Christian Maetzener, M.D.
Carlos Sanchez, M.D.
In preparation for beginning the first analytic case, students will read and discuss some of the literature on indications and assessment of analyzability. Analytic attitude, the analytic situation, and analytic listening will also be discussed along with ideas about transference. During the course each student will meet individually with preceptors to discuss cases (either from the Treatment Center or private) which will then be presented for discussion in class. Techniques of consultation, diagnostic evaluation, and conversion from psychotherapy to psychoanalysis will also be discussed.
October 2, 2017 - January 22, 2018
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
13 classes

Course 106
Technique II: Basic Concepts and Beginning Phase

Carmela Perri, Ph.D.
This course will for most students lead up to the beginning of the first analytic case. It aims to develop in the student a solid grasp of the essential principles of psychoanalytic technique, with special reference to the initial phases of analysis. Technical literature from Freud to the present will be reviewed, with an emphasis on basic papers of clinical content. Topics to be considered include: the Analytic Situation; Transference; Countertransference; Interpretation; Beginning the Analysis; Conversion from Psychotherapy; Special Problems of the Student Situation; Early Phase Difficulties such as Acting out, Silence, Use of Medication, Technical Clichés; Basic Aspects of Abstinence vs. Self-Disclosure; The Analytic Instrument; Introduction to Dream Analysis; Boundary Violations. Clinical case material will be used throughout as provided by the instructor, the students, and the case records of the Hartmann Supervisory Seminars.
February 12 - April 30, 2018
Mondays, 7:00 - 8:25 PM
11 classes

Course 107A
Child Development: Infancy and Early Childhood

Wendy Olesker, Ph.D.
The way the mind of the infant and child is conceptualized varies according to different psychoanalytic perspectives. Emphasis will be given to the classical psychoanalytic approach to understanding normal and pathological development focusing on the formation of psychic structure, and the emergence of psychic conflict. The relationship of the child to the parents, separation and individuation, childhood sexuality and aggression, the defenses, and the internalization process will be emphasized in class discussions. Readings will also include contributions from psychoanalysts and researchers whose work led to viewpoints that were different from classical clinical practice and theory as found in the work of Klein, Bowlby, Stern, and Beebe. We will ask: a) how does the conceptualization of the unfolding of a child’s mental abilities differ in each of these viewpoints; b) what clinical practices have been derived from these different approaches; and c) what does each of these viewpoints contribute to furthering understanding about the development of pathology in adults. Longitudinal case material and video examples will be presented.
November 1, 2017 - January 3, 2018
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
8 classes

Course 107B
Child Development: Latency and Pre-Adolescence

Mary Sickles, M.D.
Sarah Fox, M.D.
This course will focus on the psychoanalytic understanding of development from the resolution of the Oedipus Complex to puberty. We will study ego development, character formation and the elaboration of defensive structure based upon the increasing complexity of ego function and the crystallization of the super-ego. The similarities and differences in development during latency in boys and girls will be discussed. A major goal will be to demonstrate how the developmental issues of latency appear clinically in the analyses of both adults and children.
January 10 - March 28, 2018
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
11 classes

Course 107C
Child Development: Adolescence

Sally D. Clement, Ph.D.
Adam Libow, M.D.
The goal of this course is to broaden your knowledge of the psychoanalytic understanding of adolescent development. Following a review of papers that shaped the early psychoanalytic understanding of adolescent development, we will examine several concepts that are key to a contemporary analytic conception of the adolescent period: separation from parents and the movement toward adulthood and adult sexuality, the defensive use of action in adolescence, identification and identity, and the consolidation of the superego and the ego ideal. In our final meetings, we will focus on the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood, and on manifestations of adolescent conflict in adulthood. We will use clinical vignettes and two novels (The Catcher in the Rye, by J. D. Salinger, and On Chesil Beach, by Ian McEwan) to illustrate these concepts and issues.
April 4 - June 13, 2018
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
11 classes

Course 108
Ethics in Clinical Practice I

Stephanie Brandt, M.D.
This course will complement the courses on analytic technique, adding another dimension to the practice of psychoanalysis. It will introduce the consideration of general ethical topics. It will address some specific issues, including a)the obligations and limits of our professional role as defined by our code of ethics and elsewhere, b) confidentiality, reporting requirements and the internet, and c) sexual and other boundary violations. Participants in the course will read key papers on ethical issues. The papers will serve as a starting point for the discussion of clinical material from their own and others’ practices. This course will be continued in Course 412: Ethics in Clinical Practice II.
September 11 - September 25, 2017
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
3 classes

Course 109
Deepening the Treatment

Peter B. Dunn, M.D.
The majority of patients for whom analysis would be the treatment of choice come to treatment seeking once or twice a week face to face psychotherapy. The purpose of this course is to provide the candidate with a frame of reference for deepening the treatment of such patients so that they develop over time from psychotherapy patients to analysands. Specific techniques for fostering the patient’s accessibility to psychoanalysis will be illustrated by class discussion of process notes from the practices of the instructors and the candidates.
May 9 - June 13, 2018
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
6 classes

Course 110
Critical Thinking I

This is the first in a series of courses designed to encourage inquiry and critical thinking. The emphasis will be upon methodology, or how one’s method of inquiry delimits what one observes and the theory required to conceptualize the resulting observations, i.e. thinking through the consequences of our modes of inquiry. Both psychoanalytic and extra-analytic methods will serve as vehicles for discussion.
January 22 - February 5, 2018
Mondays, 7:00 - 8:25 PM
3 classes

Course 111
Panic Focused Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy

Barbara Milrod, M.D.
Fred Busch, M.D.
This course is designed to familiarize students with Panic Focused Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy (PFPP), a 24 session, 12 week psychoanalytic psychotherapy that has been shown in clinical trials to have efficacy for DSM-IV panic disorder with/without agoraphobia. PFPP has been tested across a range of DSM anxiety disorders and PTSD. An outline of research evidence, and the basics of treatment will be articulated. Clinical cases will be presented in detail using videotaped study psychotherapies.
November 1 - December 20, 2017
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
6 classes

Course 112
Transference Focused Psychotherapy (TFP)

Frank Yeomans, M.D.
Diana Diamond, Ph.D.
Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) is an evidence-based treatment for the severe personality disorders, particularly borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. TFP builds on a psychoanalytic object relations model. TFP combines a psychoanalytic approach with structure and limit-setting. The goals of the treatment are ambitious - personality change, as reflected in modifications in patients’ defensive structure and better functioning and satisfaction in their interpersonal and work lives, as well as symptom change. After taking this course, participants will improve their ability to treat patients with severe personality disorders. *This course is an elective for candidates.
April 4 - May 2, 2018
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
5 classes

Adult Psychoanalysis - Second Year Courses

Course 200
Freud III: Metapsychology/Narcissism/Masochism

Lincoln Hess, M.D.
Eslee Samberg, M.D.
This is the third segment in a course that examines the evolution of Freud’s theory. The centerpiece of this segment is “Papers on Metapsychology,” a sequence of five papers published by Freud in 1915. In these papers Freud returns to an exploration of how the mind works at the abstract level of generalizable principles and concepts, not explored in such depth since Ch 7 of The Interpretation of Dreams. We will also read landmark papers that introduce and/or explore concepts such as narcissism, the ego ideal, object relations, and masochism. We will begin the course with discussion of three contemporaneously published technique papers that provide a clinical backdrop and context for examining Freud’s theoretical advances.
September 6 - December 6, 2017
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
12 classes

Course 201
Character and Neurosis

Richard Brent, M.D.
Peter Dunn, M.D.
This course will introduce the Psychopathology Track with an overview of psychoanalytic diagnosis. We will review the newly issued Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, contrasting the psychoanalytic nosology of the PDM with the psychiatric nosology of the DSM-IV. The specific focus on the neurosis will include a review of the phenomenology and psychodynamics of the major neurotic character styles and the classical neurotic symptoms. The seminal literature on the hysterical, obsessional, and masochistic character neurosis will be reviewed in light of current psychoanalytic conceptions of these disorders.
October 25, 2017 - January 10, 2018
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
10 classes

Course 202
Freud IV: Structural Model and Character

Eric Weitzner, M.D.
This course will describe the structural model and explain why Freud felt he needed to replace the topographic theory. This theoretical shift led to a major evolution in the technique of psychoanalysis, especially after the development of the concept of signal anxiety in 1926. We will explore how this theoretical change was necessary because of certain theoretical problems associated with the topographic theory as well as technical advances in Freud’s work which preceded his theoretical advance. The two major papers we will study are "The Ego and the Id" and "Inhibition, Symptoms and Anxiety." We will also explore some of Freud's late papers, including his final ideas about infantile and female sexuality, his explication of the defensive operations of negation and splitting, and his last technical work "Analysis, Terminable and Interminable."
December 13, 2017 - March 7, 2018
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
11 classes

Course 203
Developments in Ego Psychology

Leon Balter, M.D.
Eric Weitzner, M.D.
This course considers clinical and theoretical developments in the structural theory. Particular emphasis will be given to psychoanalysis as a general psychology and to contemporary problems in the theory of the superego.
January 17 - May 2, 2018
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
15 classes

Course 204
Continuous Case Seminar

Theodore J. Jacobs, M.D.
Robert Penzer, M.D.
The seminar will introduce students to clinical psychoanalytic work by means of ongoing process notes from a beginning case, presented weekly. Based on knowledge gained in courses #105 and #106, and on their own clinical experience, students will have the opportunity to actively discuss the clinical situation as it unfolds. Topics will include modes of analytic listening, the formulation and timing of analytic interventions, as well as problems of the initial phase of analysis.
September 11, 2017 - February 26, 2018
Mondays, 7:00 - 8:25 PM
20 classes

Course 205
Study of Recorded Analyses

Sherwood Waldron, Jr., M.D.
The course provides an opportunity for candidates to hear, while reading the transcripts, of senior analysts at work. A case from an analysis conducted many years ago illustrates the establishment of the analysis in the first four sessions. Then sessions from early, middle and late phases of a current analysis provide an opportunity to study a variety of points about technique with the analyst. The changes in the course of the analysis, both in the way the patient works in the analysis and in life will be evident. The multiple aspects of even one session in yet another current case will be examined as well.
September 6 - October 18, 2017
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
6 classes

Course 206
Technique III: Basic Concepts and Middle Phase

Frances Cohen, M.D.
Howard Bliwise, M.D.
This course will address core topics in clinical theory and technique: Transference, Countertransference, Therapeutic Alliance, Neutrality, Interpretation, Reconstruction, Resistance, and Insight. The readings and discussions will take up beginning and middle phases and use clinical material from the students’ cases and cases provided by other analysts.
December 11, 2017 - March 19, 2018
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
11 classes

Course 207
Introduction to Child and Adolescent Analysis

Daniel W. Prezant, Ph.D.
Kirsten Butterfield, Psy.D.
This course is an introduction to child psychoanalysis from historical, theoretical, technical and clinical perspectives. There will be a consideration of how child analysis informs the work of the adult analyst. The contributions of Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Berta  Bornstein, Melanie Klein, and D. W. Winnicott will be studied and the special techniques of working with children including  the centrality of play will be explored. Clinical cases will be reviewed both to clarify the theoretical points and to show the child analyst at work.
October 16 - December 4, 2017
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
8 classes

Course 208
Writing Descriptions of Psychoanalytic Process I

In this course candidates will be asked to write descriptions of analytic process at work. The focus will be on discrete moments in an analysis, in written portayals of the interaction between analyst and patient. While considering the transference and countertransference, vignettes can include the observation and interpretation of a resistance, the patient’s response; and the analysts thoughts about what transpired. The goal is to sharpen the skills needed to make the writing vibrant and clear, and thus to help the reader understand what the analyst is thinking. Guidelines for annual summaries will also be discussed.
March 5 - April 2, 2018
Mondays, 7:00 - 8:25 PM
5 classes

Course 209
Adult Development

Alexander Kalogerakis, M.D.
Norman Straker, M.D.
This course will aim to present a psychoanalytic understanding of development in adulthood. We will also discuss how concepts of adult development can be used in psychoanalytic assessment and treatment, and we will consider specific clinical problems related to adult developmental issues. Topics covered will include the transition into adulthood, young, middle and late adulthood, marriage, parenthood, divorce, midlife crisis, working life and aging. Clinical examples of analytic work at different points in adult development will help illustrate the subject.
March 14 - May 16, 2018
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
10 classes

Course 210
Contemporary Topics in Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis

Richard Kessler, D.O.
Andrew Rosendahl, M.D., Ph.D.
In this introductory course we will discuss excerpts from various neuroscientists discussing a variety of topics: the relationship between psychoanalysis and cognitive psychology and neuroscience; epigenetics; neuroimaging and the default mode network; varieties of memory; emotions and decision-making; social cognition; and dreams. In each class we will discuss the relevance of the ideas (1) to psychoanalytic theory (2) to psychoanalytic technique and (3) how psychoanalytic constructs can contribute to furthering some basic neuroscience concepts. Second Year and Third Year students combined.
March 26 - May 14, 2018
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
8 classes

Course 211
Women's Bodies, Pregnancy, and the Pregnant Analyst

Sarah Fox, M.D.
In this course, we will discuss the impact of her pregnancy on the analyst’s sense of herself and her work with her patient. We will address problematic conceptions of women’s bodies as well as discuss the impact of parenthood on the work of both men and women. The readings will be takeoff points for class discussions. Personal and clinical examples from the members of the class will allow for lively exchange of ideas.
September 11 - October 2, 2017
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
4 classes

Adult Psychoanalysis - Third Year Courses

Adult Psychoanalysis - Fourth Year Courses

Course 400
Universal Phantasies

Howard Bliwise, M.D.
Lissa Weinstein, Ph.D.
Universal themes that arise over the course of development and influence the nature and function of phantasies will be studied. These will include Pre-Oedipal, Oedipal-derived phantasies, and themes of Death and Immortality. Dreams will be used as a basis for understanding the structure and meaning of phantasies. Themes of childhood and screen memories are used to approach phantasies as “early history.” The kinship to myths will be explored as well as the use of myths as vehicles for universal phantasies. Finally, the role of phantasies-myths in shaping the personality will be studied. Clinical material will be used throughout the course.
September 6 - November 29, 2017
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
11 classes

Course 402
Relational and Interpersonal Psychoanalysis

Donnel Stern, Ph.D.
The writers who eventually became known as relational began writing in the mid-1980s. The most significant influence on their relational views was interpersonal psychoanalysis, the orientation within which many of them trained as analysts. This course will begin with a brief consideration of interpersonal psychoanalysis between its inception in the 1930s through the 1970s. Following that introduction, and a week on the beginnings of relational thinking, we will spend two weeks on constructivism and hermeneutics, topics of significance among this group of analysts. We will then discuss the place of internal object relations in relational conceptions, recognition and witnessing, and the third. We will end with a consideration of dissociation, enactment, and the multiple self.
March 21 - May 23, 2018
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
10 classes

Course 403
Dreams in Clinical Practice

Douglas Van der Heide, M.D.
A seminar on the theory and technique of dream interpretations with regard to the specific requirements of clinical psychoanalysis.
September 6 - November 15, 2017
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
10 classes

Course 404
Technique V: Comparative Psychoanalytic Theory and Technique

Jean Roiphe, M.D.
Adam Libow, M.D.
This course will consider the implications for technique of different theoretical models of psychoanalysis. We will invite analysts who practice using different theoretical models—Ego Psychology, Contemporary Kleinian, Relational Psychoanalysis, and Self Psychology—to address the same clinical material of an ongoing psychoanalysis. Through doing so, we will try to understand the similarities and differences in their approaches to psychoanalytic listening and technique. Candidates are expected to have a basic familiarity with these different theoretical models as a pre-requisite for this course. Third and Fourth Year students combined.
December 6, 2017 - March 14, 2018
Wednesdays, 7:00 - 8:20 PM
13 classes

Course 405
Continuous Case Seminar II (Alternate Adult/Child Cases)

Steven Wein, M.D.
Ronda Shaw, M.D.
In this continuous case conference, a child case presentation will alternate with an adult case presentation. Discussion of the analytic material of the cases will emphasize clinical theory and technique. Comparisons between analytic technique in adults and children will be made. Third and Fourth Year students combined.
September 11, 2017 - March 26, 2018
Mondays, 7:00 - 8:25 PM
24 classes

Course 406
Affects and Affect Pathology

Leon Hoffman, M.D., Carlos Almeida, Jr., M.D.,
Norman Straker, M.D.
This course will examine the place of affect within psychoanalytic theory, both historically and from a contemporary analytic perspective, with attempts at integration of a neurobiological perspective. There will be a general consideration of factors that lead to affect pathology, including constitutional, developmental, structural, and dynamic factors through a particular focus on depressive mood states and anxiety disorders. Third and fourth year students combined.
September 11 - November 13, 2017
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
9 classes

Course 407
Technique VI: Termination

Adele Tutter, M.D., Ph.D.
The overall organizing theme of this course will be issues of technique as they relate to termination. The aim of the course is to familiarize candidates with the various factors that need to be considered regarding the process of termination of an analytic treatment and the wide ranging opinions about these issues in the literature.
April 2 - May 7, 2018
Mondays, 7:00 - 8:25 PM
6 classes

Course 409

Lissa Weinstein, M.D.
The range of sexual variations, sexual adaptations, and disorders of sexual functioning (i.e. regressive adaptations central to character structure) are addressed through a review of the literature and via clinical illustration.
January 3 - March 21, 2018
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
11 classes

Course 410
Technique VII: Advanced Analyzability and Failed Cases

Philip Herschenfeld, M.D.
Allison Lomonaco, M.D.
This seminar will use analytic case material presented by invited graduates, faculty, and students to explore complex issues surrounding analyzability and its assessment. The course is designed for advanced candidates whose substantial analytic experience enables a more sophisticated examination of this important but often inadequately considered phase of psychoanalytic practice.
January 8 - March 12, 2018
Mondays, 8:30 - 10:00 PM
8 classes

Course 411
Winnicott and Bion: Primitive Mental Phenomena and States

M. Nasir Ilahi
Francis Baudry, M.D.
This course will serve as an introduction to the contributions of Bion and Winnicott, contemporaries in British psychoanalysis, who each built upon the works of Freud and Klein in very unique and robust ways. We will focus, in particular, on issues of early development, primitive mental states, and the factors that impair the capacity to have a mind. Convergences and contrasts between the two British theorists will also be highlighted, as will those between psychoanalysis as it evolved more generally in the UK and in North America. As their contributions are firmly rooted in clinical experience, moreover, vignettes from clinical work will be used throughout to elucidate conceptual categories.
March 28 - April 25, 2018
Wednesdays, 8:40 - 10:00 PM
5 classes

Adult Psychoanalysis - Electives

Introduction to French Psychoanalysis: A Clinical Perspective

Christine Anzieu, M.D., Ph.D.
This course consists of an overview of French psychoanalytic thinking, including the unique approaches to reading Freud. Theorists include Jacques Lacan, Andre Green, Jean Laplanche and Didier Anzieu. Prominent themes are the Unconscious and the Role of the Drives, the Importance of Frame and Transference in Technique, the Body in early development, and modern developments on Borderline Pathology.
April 6 - May 18, 2017
8:00 - 9:30 PM
6 classes

Seminar on Clinical Technique

Michael Porder, M.D.
Dr. Porder will lead a monthly seminar for advanced candidates and members on clinical technique. Like the Kris Study Group which ran for decades, this course will involve examination and discussion of clinical work presented by participants in the group. Relevant readings will be assigned periodically. The group will meet on the third Thursday of every month starting in October.

Specific course dates: 10/19, 11/30/2017 (4th Thursday), 1/18, 3/15, 4/19, 5/17, 6/21/2018.
October 19, 2017 - June 21, 2018
7:00 - 8:30 PM
7 classes
guidance • support • stress • anxiety • depression • conflict • hyperactivity • identity disorders • socialization • self-esteem •
guidance • support • stress • anxiety • depression • conflict • hyperactivity • identity disorders • socialization • self-esteem •
guidance • support • stress • anxiety • depression • conflict • hyperactivity • identity disorders • socialization • self-esteem •